The Allies fought the Germans and Italian troops. It was one of the hardest battles in the Second World War. The Allies wanted to break through to the German Gustav Line. They wanted to gain control of Rome. Monte Cassino is a monastery that stood in the center of German defense. Rome was finally captured and both the sides lost around 125,000 men. The battle started on the 17th January and ended on the 18th May in 1944. The battle saw 185,000 casualties.